changes in UK family law in 2023

Family Law: "Do you know - Children"

Welcome to our ‘Do You Know’ section, specifically tailored for Family Law.

As you navigate the complexities of relationships, parenthood, and personal obligations, you’ll find that law often intersects with life in ways you might not expect.

Our ‘Do You Know’ section section aims to provide you with concise, enlightening insights that demystify the legal landscape surrounding family matters. Our goal is to empower you with knowledge, making the law not just accessible but also relatable as you go about your daily life.

By exploring our ‘Do You Know’ section, you’ll gain valuable insights into the legal facets of family life that often go unnoticed. From understanding parental responsibilities to navigating the intricacies of divorce, this section offers bite-sized, easily digestible information designed to enlighten and guide you. Whether you’re a parent, spouse, or simply someone seeking to understand how law intersects with family dynamics, you’ll find this resource both informative and empowering.

parental mental health and care proceedings

Family law is a complex field that governs the legal responsibilities and rights of family members.

One of the most critical aspects of family law is the concept of parental rights and responsibilities, especially when parents are no longer together. Contrary to popular belief, both parents generally have equal rights and responsibilities for their children, irrespective of their marital status. This post aims to shed light on this often misunderstood area of family law.

The Common Misconception Many people operate under the misconception that one parent (often the mother) has more rights over the children, especially in cases of divorce or separation. However, the law generally views both parents as having equal responsibilities and rights, unless there's a compelling reason to decide otherwise.

What Does the Law Say?

In the United Kingdom, both parents have what is known as 'Parental Responsibility' for their children until they turn 18. Parental Responsibility refers to all the legal rights, duties, powers, responsibilities, and authority that a parent has concerning the child. This includes making decisions about education, healthcare, and religion, among other things. 

When Does It Get Complicated?

Issues often arise when parents separate or divorce. In these situations, living arrangements and decision-making responsibilities for the children need to be sorted out. While the law encourages parents to come to mutual agreements, sometimes court intervention becomes necessary. In such cases, the court will always prioritise the child's best interests.

The Importance of Legal Guidance

Understanding your rights and responsibilities as a parent is crucial, especially when navigating the complexities of separation or divorce. Legal advice can provide clarity and help you make informed decisions that are in the best interests of your child.


The notion that both parents have equal rights and responsibilities for their children is foundational in family law. While societal norms and personal beliefs may suggest otherwise, the legal system aims to ensure that both parents have an active role in their child's life.

If you find yourself in a situation where you're uncertain about your parental rights, it's always best to consult with a legal expert to guide you through the intricacies of family law. You can read more about our family law services here.

parental mental health and care proceedings

Child custody is a sensitive and often contentious issue that many parents face, especially during separation or divorce.

While it's commonly believed that court intervention is inevitable, the truth is that parents can mutually agree on custody arrangements. However, if an agreement can't be reached, the court steps in to decide based on the child's best interests. This post aims to clarify these two paths to child custody arrangements.

The Ideal Scenario: Mutual Agreement

The most amicable and least stressful way to sort out child custody is through mutual agreement between both parents. This agreement can be informal, but it's advisable to put it in writing and make it legally binding through a 'Consent Order.' A mutual agreement allows parents to maintain control over decisions affecting their child's life, such as living arrangements, education, and healthcare. When Mutual Agreement Fails Unfortunately, not all parents can reach a mutual agreement. Emotions can run high, and differing views on what's best for the child can lead to impasses. In such cases, the matter may have to be settled in court.

The Court's Role: Child's Best Interests

When parents can't agree, the court intervenes to make a decision based on the child's best interests. Various factors are considered, including the child's age, emotional well-being, and the ability of each parent to provide for the child. The court may also take into account the child's own wishes, particularly if the child is old enough to express a reasoned opinion.

Legal Guidance is Crucial

Whether you're aiming for a mutual agreement or find yourself facing a court decision, legal advice is invaluable. A family law solicitor can guide you through the legal intricacies and help you understand your rights and responsibilities. They can also help draft a robust 'Consent Order' if you reach a mutual agreement, or represent you effectively in court if needed.


Child custody arrangements can be made through mutual agreement, offering parents a way to resolve the issue amicably. However, when disagreements arise, the court becomes the ultimate arbiter, always focusing on the child's best interests. Understanding these two avenues can empower you to make informed decisions that prioritize your child's well-being.

parental mental health and care proceedings

When it comes to child custody, timing is often a crucial factor that many parents may overlook.

While the law allows for flexibility in reaching mutual agreements, it's essential to understand that there's a time limit for making legal claims concerning child custody. This 'Do You Know' aims to shed light on this time-sensitive aspect of child custody arrangements.

The Importance of Timing

In child custody cases, timing can be a critical factor, especially when legal claims are involved. While mutual agreements can be reached at any time, formal legal claims have specific time constraints that parents must adhere to. Failing to act within these time frames can result in lost opportunities to assert your parental rights.

What Does the Law Say?

The law generally allows parents to make child custody arrangements at any time, provided both parties agree. However, if you're considering taking the matter to court, different jurisdictions have varying statutes of limitations. It's crucial to consult with a legal advisor to understand the specific time limits applicable in your case.

Why Time Limits Exist

Statutes of limitations serve several purposes, including ensuring that evidence is preserved and that claims are made while information is still fresh. These time limits aim to provide a fair legal framework for all parties involved. Legal Guidance is Essential Understanding the time limits for child custody claims is complex and varies depending on numerous factors, including jurisdiction and the nature of the claim. Therefore, consulting a family law solicitor is essential. They can provide timely advice and guide you through the legal process, ensuring you don't miss critical deadlines.


While child custody arrangements can often be made amicably through mutual agreement, it's vital to be aware of the legal time limits when considering formal claims. These time constraints are in place to ensure fairness and accuracy in legal proceedings. If you find yourself facing a time-sensitive custody issue, seeking legal advice is not just advisable—it's essential.

parental mental health and care proceedings

Parenting is a complex and rewarding journey, often requiring critical decisions that significantly impact a child's life.

While many of these decisions are made amicably between parents, disagreements can arise, leading to a deadlock that serves neither parent nor child. In such situations, the UK legal system offers a remedy known as a 'Specific Issue Order.' This 'Do You Know' delves into the intricacies of Specific Issue Orders, exploring when they are necessary, how they work, and the legal considerations involved.

What Exactly is a Specific Issue Order?

A Specific Issue Order is a type of court order that provides legal direction on a particular aspect of a child's upbringing. This could range from educational choices, such as which school the child should attend, to medical decisions like whether a child should receive a particular type of treatment. The order is designed to resolve a specific question or issue that has become a point of contention between parents, offering a legal resolution that prioritizes the child's best interests.

The Circumstances That Warrant a Specific Issue Order

While the ideal scenario is for parents to resolve disagreements amicably, this is not always possible. Emotions can run high, and each parent may have deeply held beliefs about what is best for their child, leading to an impasse. In such cases, a Specific Issue Order becomes not just an option but often a necessity. It serves as a legal mechanism to break the deadlock and provide a resolution that is focused on the child's welfare.

The Court's Decision-Making Process

When a Specific Issue Order is sought, the court's primary concern is the child's best interests. To determine this, the court considers a variety of factors. These include the child's physical and emotional well-being, the ability of each parent to meet the child's needs, and the child's own wishes if they are of an age and maturity to express them. The court may also consider expert opinions, such as reports from social workers or psychologists, to make a well-informed decision.

Why Legal Guidance is Indispensable

The process of applying for a Specific Issue Order involves several legal steps. These range from filing an application and gathering supporting evidence to attending a court hearing where both parents may present their cases. Given the complexities and the high stakes involved, the guidance of a family law solicitor is invaluable. They can navigate the legal intricacies, help prepare a compelling case, and represent your interests effectively in court.


Specific Issue Orders serve as a vital tool in the legal landscape of child custody and parental rights. They offer a structured, legally sound means of resolving disagreements that parents cannot settle amicably. While the process may seem daunting, it is designed with the child's best interests at heart. If you find yourself in a deadlock over a significant parenting decision, a Specific Issue Order may offer the most constructive path forward.

parental mental health and care proceedings

Child custody cases are often fraught with emotion and complexity, as parents strive to achieve the best possible outcome for their children.

While the court's primary concern is always the child's best interests, an often-overlooked aspect is the role the child's own wishes play in the decision-making process. This blog post aims to explore how and when a child's opinions are considered in custody cases, focusing on the importance of age and maturity.

The Legal Framework

In the United Kingdom, the court considers various factors when determining child custody arrangements. These include the child's emotional and physical well-being, the parents' ability to provide for the child, and any risk of harm. However, another crucial factor is the child's own wishes and feelings, especially if the child is old enough to express a reasoned opinion.

Age and Maturity: When Does a Child's Opinion Matter?

The court gives weight to a child's opinion based on their age and level of maturity. While there is no specific age threshold, children aged 12 and older are generally considered capable of forming their own views. However, this is not a hard-and-fast rule. A mature younger child's opinion may also be considered, while an older child's views might be discounted if they are not deemed sufficiently mature.

The Process of Gathering a Child's Input

The child's opinion is usually gathered through a welfare report, prepared by a court-appointed officer from the Children and Family Court Advisory and Support Service (CAFCASS). The CAFCASS officer will speak to the child independently and may also observe interactions between the child and each parent. This report plays a significant role in the court's final decision.

Balancing Act: Child's Wishes vs. Best Interests

It's important to note that while a child's wishes are considered, they are not the deciding factor. The court balances these wishes against other elements, such as the child's overall well-being and safety. In some cases, what a child wants may not align with what is objectively in their best interests, and the court will make its decision accordingly.

Why Legal Guidance is Essential

Given the complexities involved in child custody cases, especially when a child's own wishes are a factor, legal guidance is indispensable. A family law solicitor can help you navigate these complexities, ensuring that both your rights and your child's best interests are upheld.


The role of a child's wishes in custody cases is a nuanced aspect that varies depending on age and maturity. While the court does consider what a child wants, this is always balanced against the overarching goal of ensuring the child's well-being. If you find yourself in a custody battle and wonder how your child's opinions will factor in, consulting a family law expert is a crucial step.

parental mental health and care proceedings

Adoption is a monumental event that forever changes the lives of both children and parents.

While the emotional aspects of adoption often take center stage, it's crucial to understand the legal ramifications as well. Adoption is not merely a change in family dynamics; it's a legal process that permanently transfers all parental rights and responsibilities from the birth parents to the adoptive parents. This blog post aims to provide an in-depth look into the legal implications of this life-altering process.

The Legal Definition of Adoption

Adoption is a formal legal procedure that culminates in the complete and permanent transfer of all parental rights and responsibilities. Once an adoption is finalized, the legal relationship between the child and the birth parents is severed. In its place, a new legal relationship is established between the child and the adoptive parents, as if the child were born to them.

The Steps Involved in the Legal Process

The adoption process is a multi-step journey that involves various legal and administrative stages. These range from initial applications and home studies to court hearings where the merits of the adoption are evaluated. Here are the main steps you can expect:

Initial Application

The adoption journey begins with an initial application to an adoption agency or local authority. This application is a formal request to be considered as an adoptive parent. It usually involves filling out detailed forms that cover various aspects of your life, including your family background, financial stability, and reasons for wanting to adopt.

Home Study

Once the initial application is accepted, a home study is conducted. This involves multiple visits from a social worker to assess your suitability as an adoptive parent. The home study evaluates your home environment, your relationships, and your ability to meet a child's needs. It's a comprehensive review that may also involve interviews with other family members.

Matching Process

After the home study, the next step is the matching process, where the adoption agency tries to match you with a child who they believe would fit well into your family. This involves reviewing profiles of children in need of adoption and may include meetings between you and the child or children you may adopt.

Legal Proceedings

Once a match is made, legal proceedings begin. This involves filing a petition for adoption in the family court. The court reviews all the documents, including the home study report and any recommendations from the adoption agency. A hearing date is then set.

Court Hearing

During the court hearing, a judge reviews the case to ensure that the adoption is in the child's best interests. Both the adoptive and birth parents may be required to attend, and the judge may ask various questions to assess the suitability of the adoptive home. If the judge is satisfied, they will issue an adoption order.

Finalization and New Birth Certificate

The adoption process is finalized once the adoption order is granted. This is the legal document that severs the parental rights of the birth parents and transfers them to the adoptive parents. Following this, a new birth certificate is issued for the child, listing the adoptive parents as the child's legal parents.

The Permanence and Irrevocability of Adoption

One of the most significant aspects of adoption is its irrevocable nature. Unlike temporary custody arrangements or guardianships, an adoption is permanent. Once the adoption order is granted, it is exceedingly rare for it to be reversed. This permanence serves a vital purpose: it provides the child with long-term stability and a 'forever home,' which is essential for their emotional and psychological well-being.

Emotional Considerations vs. Legal Realities

Adoption is a deeply emotional process for all parties involved. For birth parents, it involves the difficult decision to relinquish all legal ties to their child. For adoptive parents, it's the joyous culmination of a journey to parenthood. However, the emotional aspects should not overshadow the legal realities. Both sets of parents must fully understand the legal implications, including the permanence of the adoption and the rights they are either gaining or relinquishing.

The Indispensable Role of Legal Counsel

Given the complexity and the irreversible nature of adoption, legal guidance is not just advisable—it's essential. A family law solicitor with expertise in adoption can navigate the legal intricacies, help prepare the necessary documentation, and represent your interests in court. Their role is crucial in ensuring that the adoption process is both legally sound and smooth.


Adoption is a transformative life event that carries significant legal implications. It involves the permanent and irrevocable transfer of parental rights and responsibilities, aiming to provide the child with a stable and loving home. While the emotional aspects of adoption are undeniable, understanding its legal dimensions is crucial for both birth and adoptive parents. If you're considering adoption, professional legal guidance is highly recommended to navigate this complex yet rewarding journey.